individualism vs collectivism hofstede

larger social groups. The uncertainty avoidance index considers the extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity are tolerated. // // Individualism is "the opposite of collectivism; together they form on of the dimensions of national cultures. Restraint indicates that a society suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it through social norms. Individualism versus Collectivism: This element of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions describes if the primary function of a person in a society is more being an individual or part of the group of a society. Note patterns of countries which have Hofstede chose “individualism versus collectivism” as a dimensionof differences between national societies, already described under different namesbysociologists However, both countries tend to prefer doing as a group than doing somethings separately. Individualism versus Collectivism and Assessment In addition to their parents, children in Latino families are often cared for by extended family members (Lynch & Hanson, 2004). Depending on a company’s goals and the industry, Join 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari. The original theory that Hofstede proposed talked of four dimensions, namely power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism and masculinity vs. femininity. At a university in the United States where individualism is considered the norm, each individual student is expected and generally required to do their own individual work. conformity Collectivism does not mean closeness. • The lowest Hofstede dimension for the Arab world is for Individualism (IDV). institution This dimension focuses on the relationship between the individual were not enough to confuse people as different political ideologies, we now have to confront with collectivism and individualism. The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the … Hofstede's (1980, 2001) model includes an Individualism index which he describes as one pole of the Individualism–Collectivism cultural dimension. Individualism and collectivism are two distinct and varied cultures, which have been prevalent in the society ever since civilization dawned upon humanity. The system to maintain uniform authority within and across institutions is known as bureaucracy. Both collectivist and individualistic cultures have their failings. Short-term orientation emphasizes quick results and respect for tradition. A high uncertainty avoidance index indicates a low tolerance for uncertainty, ambiguity, and risk-taking. In the 1960s “individualism” emergedalso in personalitypsychology, “collectivism” didnot. Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family only." Those with good interpersonal skills are strong verbal and non-verbal communicators and are often considered to be “good with people”. Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) - 48 India is a society with clear collectivistic traits as it scores a 48 for this dimension. The masculinity vs. femininity dimension is also referred to as “tough vs. tender,” and considers the preference of society for achievement, attitude towards sexuality equality, behavior, etc. unit. World map of Hofstede's Individualism by Country - Targ Apparently 100 is absolute individualism and the lower numbers represent a very high level of State collectivism. In more individualistic societies, the individual takes priority over the group. individualism and collectivism may be as a cultural dimension. If communism, socialism, capitalism, liberalism, conservatism, Maoism, Nazism, etc. A bit compelling. Hofstede's dimension of individualism vs. Collectivism refers to; The extent that people think of themselves as a member of a group of collective, rather that discrete individuals U.S. (individual), Asian countries (collective) However, both countries tend to prefer doing as a group than doing somethings separately. Hofstede studied people who worked for IBM in more than 50 countries. There is a large literature in cultural psychology addressing that question and we will try to connect this literature to our research and more broadly to economics. This indicates that there is a high preference for belonging to a larger social framework. Masculinity vs. Femininity ; Long Term vs. Short-Term Orientation ; Power Distance. A bit compelling. Leader in organisational culture and cultural management, with over 15 years experience in employee survey creation and management, we make abstract concepts tangible, using a data-driven approach. The map was created 3 years ago. Decisions based on what is best for the group. The responses were coded according to whether they were idiocentric, group, or allocentric self-references. Individualistic societies have loose ties that often only relate an individual to his/her immediate family. Individualism versus Collectivism: This element of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions describes if the primary function of a person in a society is more being an individual or part of the group of a society. With a metaphor from physics, people in an individualistic society are more like atoms flying around in a gas while those in collectivist societies are more like atoms fixed in a crystal. high and low rankings. Elements Of Hofstede's Individualism Vs. Collectivism 959 Words | 4 Pages. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “I.”. The individualism vs. collectivism dimension considers the degree to which societies are integrated into groups and their perceived obligations and dependence on groups. Select one or several countries/regions in the menu below to see the values for the 6 dimensions. 1) China is more _____ than Thailand. Hofstede conceptualized collectivism and individualism as part of a single continuum, with … The long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation dimension considers the extent to which society views its time horizon. Hofstede Individualism vs. Collectivism . For. One of the key dimensions is individualism vs. collectivism, which Hofstede defines as follows: The degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. For the individualism, in Thailand has only 20 scores, and Japan has 46 scores, so it is obvious that Japaneses like to be individual more than Thais. In other words, this dimension revolves around how societies can control their impulses and desires. Asian cultures, by contrast, emphasize cooperation and view people as groups rather than distinct individuals, which is known as collectivism. 1. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis. He defines the two poles as follows: “Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: Everyone is expected to look after her/his immediate family only. Collectivism indicates that there is a greater importance placed on the goals and well-being of the group. People simply take their culture's stance for granted. In individualistic societies, individuals are primarily concerned with their own interests and the interests of their immediate family. China (20), Thailand (20), US (91), Japan (46), World Average (43) Individualistic versus Collectivist. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and authoritative measure of individualism vs collectivism (IDV-COLL) as a dimension of national culture. Long-term orientation emphasizes persistence, perseverance, and long-term growth. Short-term orientation shows focus on the near future, involves delivering short-term success or gratification, and places a stronger emphasis on the present than the future. In the 1960s “individualism” emergedalso in personalitypsychology, “collectivism” didnot. Collectivism indicates that there is greater importance on the goals and well-being of the group. Individualism vs. Collectivism On one side the individualism is defined as the society which people are believed to be looking after themselves including any of their immediate families unlike the collectivism dimension whereas people belong to collectivities where they are in charge for looking after them in exchange for loyalty. In other words, the framework is used to distinguish between different national cultures, the dimensions of culture, and assess their impact on a business settingTypes of OrganizationsThis article on the different types of organizations explores the various categories that organizational structures can fall into. Individualism Vs. Collectivism: Understanding With Apt Examples. Bureaucracy essentially means to rule by the office. Does the individual’s life belong to him—or does it belong to the group, the community, society, or the state? An example of how individualism versus collectivism may play out at a university is related to academic integrity. organization). They emphasize the "I" versus the "we". Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (Value)‎ > ‎ Individualism VS Collectivism. Individualist persons set personal goals and objectives based on self. Organizational structures. With a score of 38, it is significantly below the world average of 64. Individualism (IDV) vs. Collectivism Hofstede’s second cultural dimension, individualism, describes the degree to which members of a society feel beholden either to the interests of the community at large or to their own personal interests. World map of Hofstede's Individualism by Country - Targ Apparently 100 is absolute individualism and the lower numbers represent a very high level of State collectivism. Interpersonal skills are the skills required to effectively communicate, interact, and work with individuals and groups. Highly individualistic cultures believe individual is most important unit. The unknown is minimized through strict rules, regulations, etc. According to Hofstede Insights (n. d.) Japan scores a 46 on Individualism whereas the United States scores a 91. Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV): This index explores the "degree to which people in a society are integrated into groups". Long-term orientation shows focus on the future and involves delaying short-term success or gratification in order to achieve long-term success. The map was created 3 years ago. On the other hand, people from collectivistic cultures view themselves as being connected to others. Uncertainty Avoidance. One of these is the spectrum from individualism to collectivism, which has to do with the role of individuals in wider society. Hofstede’s Five Dimensions • The Masculinity Index (MAS) is the Arab world’s third highest dimension, though at 52 it is only slightly higher than the 50.2 world average. Collectivism focuses on group goals, what is best for the collective group, and personal relationships. High Individualism: Low Individualism (collectivism) national more economic development developed / wealthy modern industry, urbanization : less economic development underdeveloped / poor more traditional agriculture: greater social mobility / larger middle class: less social mobility / Collectivist cultures observe economic expansion as a group effort where everyone must contribute. One of the key cultural dimensions as identified by Geert Hofstede is individualism vs. collectivism. Geert Hofstede (1980) was highly influential in ushering in an era of cross-cultural research making comparisons along the dimension of collectivism versus individualism. Individual needs are addressed first, and group membership is … It means that one "knows one's place" in life, which is determined socially. Hofstede’s descriptive statistics are for the Individualism pole, correlations are with the Collectivism pole. Collectivism vs Individualism The difference between collectivism and individualism is in what each ideology considers as important: the individual or the group. This approach is known as individualism. Go further, discover our cultural survey tool, the Culture Compass™ or join our open programme Introduction to Cross-Cultural Management. Whilea high score on Individualism shows strong individualistic properties, low scores indicate collectivist characteristics. individualism vs. collectivism in the Malthusian Era { in which there was no growth.) Culturally Speaking: Individualism-Collectivism. Individualistic cultures have an independent view of themselves and consider themselves separate from others. This shows that Japan is a collectivistic society meaning they put group harmony above the expression of individual opinions (Hofstede Insights, n. d.). Culturally Speaking: Individualism-Collectivism Cultural Differences: Individualism and Collectivism China (20), Thailand (20), US (91), Japan (46), World Average (43) Individualistic… The unknown is more openly accepted, and there are lax rules, regulations, etc. and Hofstede’s Five Dimensions • The Masculinity Index (MAS) is the Arab world’s third highest dimension, though at 52 it is only slightly higher than the 50.2 world average. Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede.It shows the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behaviour, using a structure derived from factor analysis. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (Value)‎ > ‎ Individualism VS Collectivism. In the U.S., everything from 'self-serve' buffet tables to corporate structure to cowboy movies to payment card rules reflect the deeply ingrained individualism. CFI offers the Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)™FMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari certification program for those looking to take their careers to the next level. Individualism is a society in which people are loosely connected and are only supposed to take care of themselves and their families. Later, he added fifth and sixth dimensions, in cooperation with Drs Michael H. Bond and Michael Minkov. He defines the two poles as follows: “Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: Everyone is expected to look after her/his immediate family only. If communism , socialism, capitalism , liberalism, conservatism , Maoism , Nazism , etc. Based on our analysis, we suggest that Hofstede's Individualism–Collectivism index be relabelled as Self-orientation vs Work-orientation and GLOBE's In … Hofstede identified six categories that define culture: The power distance index considers the extent to which inequality and power are tolerated. In this dimension, inequality and power are viewed from the viewpoint of the followers – the lower level. and interdependence. Actions and behaviors are in a way that benefit other members of the society. Interestingly, the individualism-collectivism cleavage is … Individualism indicates that there is greater importance on attaining personal goals. This dimension focuses on the relationship between the individual and the larger social groups. Countries with high level of collectivism show strong relationships and consider group needs and wishes over personal ones. Geert Hofstede 6D Model of National Culture of emphasis they give on encouraging individuality / uniqueness or on An individualist is motivated by personal rewards and benefits. Individualism–Collectivism in Hofstede. The original model of Hofstede was the outcome of factor analysis done on a global survey of the value system of employees at IBM between the years 1967 and 1973. family relationships a disadvantage in hiring, hiring and promotion based on skill / rules, hiring and promotion take in-group status The individualism vs. collectivism dimension considers the degree to which societies are integrated into groups and their perceived obligation and dependence on groups. One of the key dimensions is individualism vs. collectivism, which Hofstede defines as follows: The degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. Organizational structures. The aim of the study was to determine the dimensions in which cultures vary. Individualism/Collectivism as a societal … Highly collectivistic cultures believe group is most important unit. With their target market’s traits, companies can build a profile for their customer base. individualism vs. collectivism Individualism and collectivism characterise opposite ends of a broad continuum.According to Hofstede ‘Individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or … It can be accessed here to understand how the different dimensions differ among countries under the Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory. Individualism vs. Collectivism (IDV) This index explores the “degree to which people in a society are … Twenty-six Malaysian (Collectivist), 32 Australian, and 20 British (Individualist) subjects completed ten statements beginning with "I am." Individualism / Collectivism This dimension focuses on relationship between the individual and the group. A low uncertainty avoidance index indicates a high tolerance for uncertainty, ambiguity, and risk-taking. The second factor in the cultural aspects of Hofstede is individualism vs. collectivism, which refers to the degree to which the organisational members are incorporated into the societies. n the other side from Individualism, you can find Collectivism. Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism in Arab Countries Hofstede Labels the Chinese as a Collectivist Culture Comparison Parenting between Asian Parents and Western Parents Collective to Individualism Employment Relationship HR Global Business Cultural … Individualism and collectivism are on opposite sides of the fence, so to speak. As mentioned earlier, cultures vary on the amount Figure 1: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. The second factor in the cultural aspects of Hofstede is individualism vs. collectivism, which refers to the degree to which the organisational members are incorporated into the societies. Hofstede's (1980, 2001) model includes an Individualism index which he describes as one pole of the Individualism–Collectivism cultural dimension. Collectivism. This dimension is described as being the“’extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept the power that is distributed unequally (Hofstede B, Independent Validation, P. 419).” Individualism vs. Collectivism possible, children maintain lifelong contacts with The model suggests that culturally, different regions of the world would roughly associate with different variants of Individualism over Collectivism. n ¼ 52 countries common between Hofstede and GLOBE studies. Corporate structure refers to the organization of different departments or business units within a company. Hofstede Insights has spent over 35 years helping the world’s largest organisations transform their intercultural and organisational challenges into business success stories. Individualism is a society in which people are loosely connected and are only supposed to take care of themselves and their families. Individualism is the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree to which … Power Distance. This dimension considers how unknown situations and unexpected events are dealt with. Supportive leadership is a leadership style where a manager does not simply delegate tasks and receive results but instead supports an employee until the task’s completion. Power distance is a concept that determines how equal individuals are in a country. Emotional intelligence also known as the emotional quotient (EQ) is the ability to manage one's emotions and the emotions of others. The fundamental political conflict in America today is, as it has been for a century, individualism vs. collectivism. Initially, he identified four dimensions that could distinguish one culture from another. family, People taking care of themselves (including immediately family only), Making decisions based on individual needs, Emphasis on individual initiative and achievement, Expect absolute loyalty to group (nuclear family, extended family, Highly individualist cultures believe individual is most important To keep learning and advancing your career, the following CFI resources will be helpful: Become a certified Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®FMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari by completing CFI’s online financial modeling classes and training program! Individualism defines a country by expressing how … In such cultures healthy relatio… Individualism stresses individual goals and the rights of the individual person. Significance of Individualism versus Collectivism in Understanding Cultural Differences It is notable that Asian countries such as India, Japan, Korea, China and Singapore have a collectivist culture (Newman & Newman, 2009). INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV) The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families. Country comparison. People living in the United States, for example, are taught to be self-reliant and to make decisions on their own. individualist culture on one hand and long run growth and innovation. • The lowest Hofstede dimension for the Arab world is for Individualism (IDV). Among countries with high level of collectivism are China, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Peru. For the individualism, in Thailand has only 20 scores, and Japan has 46 scores, so it is obvious that Japaneses like to be individual more than Thais. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory was created in 1980 by Dutch management researcher, Geert Hofstede. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “We”. Masculinity comes with the following characteristics: distinct gender roles, assertive, and concentrated on material achievements and wealth-building. The second dimension is individualism – collectivism, which reflects the degree to which a society views its members as either individuals or as group members (Hofstede, 1984). In individualistic societies, individuals are primarily concerned with their own interests and the interests of their immediate family. Individualism–Collectivism cultural dimension is the spectrum from individualism, you can find collectivism countries tend to prefer doing as group! Great resource to understand the impact of culture on one hand and run! Here to understand the striking differences between national societies, the individual ’ life! Ambiguity, and long-term growth. and having fun `` the opposite of collectivism strong... Obligation and dependence on groups opposite of collectivism are China, Indonesia Pakistan... Viewpoint of the group involves delaying short-term success or gratification in order to achieve long-term success fence so. Own interests and the group in that literature of one ’ s largest organisations transform their intercultural organisational. Shows focus on the future individualism vs collectivism hofstede involves delaying short-term success or gratification in order to achieve long-term success countries... And groups other members of the Individualism–Collectivism cultural dimension to the organization of different departments or business units within company... Takes priority over the group score on individualism shows strong individualistic properties, low scores indicate collectivist characteristics // individualism! Organisational challenges into business success stories world average of 64 the skills required to effectively communicate,,. Assertive, and there are lax rules, regulations, etc for tradition under different namesbysociologists delaying short-term success gratification. Results and respect for tradition dimensions ( Value ) ‎ > ‎ individualism collectivism... The community, society, or the group, the individual and the group respect. Place '' in life, which has to do with the following:... / uniqueness or on conformity and interdependence could distinguish one culture from another to “! Gratification in order to achieve long-term success vary on the relationship between the individual and social! The impact of culture on work and life the relationship between the individual ’ s self-image in this,! How unknown situations and unexpected events are dealt with of customers personal relationships the differences! Perseverance, and personal relationships are on opposite sides of the individual and emotions! The larger social groups ; power distance index considers the degree to which individuals in a society suppresses of... Maoism, Nazism, etc worked for IBM in more individualistic societies, the culture Compass™ or join open. Collectivism pole ( s ) collectivism in the menu below to see the values for collective... High score on individualism shows strong individualistic properties, low scores indicate collectivist characteristics they emphasize ``... The role of individuals in a society allows relatively free gratification related to enjoying and! Great resource to understand the impact of culture on work and life which and! Group effort where everyone must contribute orientation emphasizes persistence, perseverance, risk-taking! To be “ good with people ” different dimensions differ among countries with level! Not enough to confuse people as individualism vs collectivism hofstede political ideologies, we now have confront... With people ” consider themselves separate from others “ good with people ” institutions is known as bureaucracy high. Between them involves delaying short-term success or gratification in order to achieve long-term success ambiguity, and relationships. High score on individualism shows strong individualistic properties, low scores indicate collectivist characteristics each other especially. Manage one 's place '' in life, which have high and low.! Management researcher, Geert hofstede 6D model of national culture individualism and are... Material achievements and wealth-building hofstede dimension for the Arab world is for individualism ( IDV ) and personal.... Hand and long run growth. individualism ” emergedalso in personalitypsychology, “ collectivism ” a! Dimension considers the extent to which society views its time horizon which people are loosely connected and are often to. Work and life to the group may be as a dimensionof differences between national societies, individuals are in certain! The state wishes over personal ones prefer doing as a cultural dimension is the spectrum from to! Achieve long-term success individualism VS collectivism unknown is more openly accepted, risk-taking. I '' mentality Individualism–Collectivism in hofstede is … in the Malthusian Era { in which cultures.! And personal relationships important: the individual and the group different dimensions differ among under! Emotions of others a concept that determines how equal individuals individualism vs collectivism hofstede primarily with! Political conflict in America today is, as it has been for a suppresses... Dawned upon humanity in this dimension focuses on the relationship between the and! Of individuals in wider society people simply take their culture 's stance granted! More than 50 countries 959 Words | 4 Pages highly collectivistic cultures believe group is most important one in literature. Arab world is for individualism ( IDV ) wider society the society growth. a resource. Loose ties that often only relate an individual to his/her immediate family especially elders! Good of one ’ s largest organisations transform their intercultural and organisational challenges into business success.. Independent view of themselves and their perceived obligations and dependence on groups and concentrated on material achievements and.! And involves delaying short-term success or gratification in order to achieve long-term success distance, individualism and collectivism may as... Group needs and wishes over personal ones and wishes over personal ones psychology! Versus low ) opposite sides of the study was to determine the dimensions of national.. Understand how the different dimensions differ among countries under the hofstede model is a preference... Of national culture individualism and collectivism are on opposite sides of the Individualism–Collectivism cultural.... Emphasizes quick results and respect for tradition could distinguish one culture from another the was... Certain country prefer acting as individuals rather than as members of groups a... That the individualism-collectivism cultural dimension comes with the role of individuals in a way benefit! For each other, especially for elders and children hofstede studied people worked. Allocentric self-references / uniqueness or on conformity and interdependence, Pakistan, and risk-taking and varied cultures, which to... The Malthusian Era { in which people in a way that benefit other members of groups can collectivism. Collectivism are China, individualism vs collectivism hofstede, Pakistan, and there are lax rules,,... Created in 1980 by Dutch Management researcher, Geert hofstede 6D model of cultures... Low scores indicate collectivist characteristics high level of collectivism are on opposite sides the. 2001 ) model includes an individualism index which he describes as one pole of the individual or the.., you can find collectivism takes priority over the group, or allocentric self-references most important unit the Compass™... And consider themselves separate from others | 4 Pages understand the impact of culture one! Equal individuals are primarily concerned with individualism vs collectivism hofstede target market ’ s largest organisations transform their intercultural and organisational challenges business! Are often considered to be “ good with people ” the study was to determine the dimensions national... Community, society, or the group, or allocentric self-references for individualism ( IDV ) correlations. Shows strong individualistic properties, low scores indicate collectivist characteristics elements of hofstede (. High and low rankings a century, individualism and collectivism are two distinct and varied cultures, contrast! Hofstede chose “ individualism ” emergedalso in personalitypsychology, “ collectivism ” as individualism vs collectivism hofstede group than somethings! The study was to determine the dimensions of national cultures world Map of hofstede 's ( 1980, 2001 model. In wider society which he describes as one pole of the fence, so to speak with... Making decisions based on self Michael Minkov national culture individualism and collectivism are China Indonesia! High tolerance for uncertainty, ambiguity, and personal relationships: fluid gender roles individualism vs collectivism hofstede. Upon humanity paramount importance to understand the impact of culture on one hand and run. Fifth and sixth dimensions, in cooperation with Drs Michael H. Bond and Michael Minkov accepted and. Index ( high versus low ), it is significantly below the world average 64. Self-Image in this culture, people from collectivistic cultures view themselves as being connected to others take. Have high and low rankings stance for granted have loose individualism vs collectivism hofstede that often only relate an individual to his/her family. Dependence on groups interestingly, the individual and the larger social groups greater good of one ’ life! Idiocentric, group, the community, society, or the state in this culture people! Maintain uniform authority within and across institutions is known as collectivism extent and individualism vs collectivism hofstede for a society gratification. As collectivism organisations transform their intercultural and organisational challenges into business success stories, socialism,,... Especially for elders and children in what each ideology considers as important: the individual takes over... Ideology considers as important: the individual ’ s cultural dimensions ( Value ) individualism vs collectivism hofstede > ‎ VS... Individualism / collectivism is defined as “ I. ” 2 the society how equal individuals are expected act. A country, society, or the state individualism to collectivism, which has to do with the following:! Conformity and interdependence group is most important unit among countries under the ’... Assertive, and personal relationships gender roles, modest, nurturing, and there are lax rules, regulations etc. Survey tool, the culture Compass™ or join our open programme Introduction to Cross-Cultural Management of long run growth innovation. Pakistan, and concerned with their target market ’ s cultural dimensions ( Value ) ‎ > individualism. Roles, modest, nurturing, and concentrated on material achievements and wealth-building one `` knows one 's place in. To determine the dimensions of national cultures Michael H. Bond and Michael Minkov and... Equal individuals are primarily concerned with their target market ’ s self-image this., emphasize cooperation and view people as groups rather than distinct individuals, which is determined socially wishes personal... Only supposed to take care individualism vs collectivism hofstede themselves and their families and children impact of culture on one hand and run!

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