what is absolute advantage

I don’t have a degree dear . Published 12 November 2018, Tejvan Pettinger. What is Comparative Advantage? In this case, Susan has an absolute advantage in making cups of tea and filing reports. Bob is a lazier worker and can only produce 10 cups of tea per hour and file 3 reports. Absolute advantage arises when a country or company produces goods and services using resources more efficiently than others. The absolute cost advantage is a term used by economists to explain the competitive advantage a firm may have over its competitors in a similar market. Having absolute advantage doesn’t necessarily mean an economy should produce that good. What I want to do in this video is make sure we understand the difference between "comparative advantage" and "absolute advantage". Briefly explain. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/absoluteadvantage.asp, http://www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics2.asp, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Absolute_advantage&oldid=994471779, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:59. The company is able to use fewer inputs or time to produce the same quality of goods or services as its competitors. Where one country is able to produce more of a good or service than another given the same amount of resources. It means, to produce an equivalent quantity, they by using fewer inputs. A single fossil can be dated by itself. When economies specialize and trade, they can move beyond their dome… Mr. Smith, a Scottish philosopher, and pioneer of political economy is today’s economists’ father of modern economics. In other words, a country has an absolute advantage in producing a good or service if it can … Or, when using the same resources, the company or country produces more goods and services. Sam, you are wrong please on the opportunity cost for Brazil it they decide to produce aeroplanes. This generally translates to a lower cost and often leads to market dominance. Absolute advantage arises when a country or company produces goods and services using resources more efficiently than others. absolute advantage an advantage possessed by a country engaged in INTERNATIONAL TRADE when, using a given resource input, it is able to produce more output than other countries possessing the same resource input. An absolute advantage is achieved through low-cost production. This is illustrated in Fig. Susan can produce 11 cups of tea per hour and file 13 reports. That is to say, it can create a product at a lower cost. He described it in an international trade context. You and your friends decided to help with fundraising for a local charity group by printing T-shirts and making birdhouses. You are welcome to ask any questions on Economics. On the other hand, comparative advantage is a condition in which a country produces particular goods at a lower opportunity cost in comparison to other countries. Absolute advantage is used to describe a situation in which a person, corporate entity or country can produce something at a price that is lower than others. Fewer materials are used to produce a product 2. Brazil should specialise in producing clothing (even though it doesn’t have an absolute advantage). They are some major determinants of the reasons and ways in which businesses and countries allocate resources to the production of certain goods. Let's look at two more examples: For example, extracting oil in Saudi Arabia is pretty much just a matter of “drilling a hole.” Producing oil in other countries can require considerable exploration and costly technologies for drilling and extraction—if indeed they have any oil at all. Mr. Smith first described the principles of absolute advantage in his 1776 publication An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. absolute advantage an advantage possessed by a country engaged in INTERNATIONAL TRADE when, using a given resource input, it is able to produce more output than other countries possessing the same resource input. Absolute advantage in economics is limiting because it only allows the producer with the absolute advantage to trade. Does either country have an absolute advantage in producing both goods? (A “party” may be a company, a person, a country, or Absolute Advantage . relatively better at producing). Absolute advantage is an economic term used to describe the scenario when one person or group can produce the same amount of a product as another person or group, despite using fewer resources. [1] Adam Smith first described the principle of absolute advantage in the context of international trade, using labor as the only input. The US has an absolute advantage in producing cars (5 to 2). This differs from comparative advantage, which describes a scenario where one person or group can produce at a lower opportunity cost. This efficiency allows the … People are often confused between the differences between the two concepts and look for clarifications. She should specialise in compiling the reports, whilst Bob specialises in making cups of tea. The first of these is known as an absolute advantage, and it refers to a country being more productive or efficient in producing a particular good or service.. Absolute Advantage is the inherent ability of a country that allows that country to produce specific goods in an efficient and effective manner at a relatively lower marginal cost. Brazil requires 30 hours to produce a bag of coffee while China requires 60 hours to do the same. Both terms deal with production, goods and services. Comparative Advantage takes into count opportunity cost, whereas Absolute is just producing more with the same resources. Absolute advantage is an important first step in this process, and that's why it's very helpful to learn how to identify it. Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two basic concepts to international trade. An absolute advantage means that you can do more of something during a given time. Absolute cost advantage as a barrier to entry. Because Smith only focused on comparing labor productivities to determine absolute advantage, he did not develop the concept of comparative advantage. Such benefits can be a barrier to preventing entrants from entry. It means, to produce an equivalent quantity, they by using fewer inputs. Comparative advantage refers to a situation in which the same type of commodity can be produced with a lower opportunity cost than others. On the other hand, if Portugal commits all of its labor (90+120) for the production of wine, Portugal produces (90+120)÷90=2.33... units of wine. Show that both can be better off if they each specialize in producing one good and then trade for the other. He has over twenty years experience as Head of Economics at leading schools. Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two basic concepts to international trade and perhaps two most important concepts in international trade theory. Absolute advantage is a pretty straightforward concept since it's … [2] While there are possible gains from trade with absolute advantage, the gains may not be mutually beneficial. If a company is relatively better at making a product, it should make that product and not something else. Incumbent companies usually have a lower cost structure, which is difficult for newcomers to follow. This is illustrated in Fig. The combined total production in this case is 2.25 units of cloth and 2.33 units of wine which is greater than the total production of each good had there been no specialization. Absolute advantage is the ability to produce a certain good more efficiently than any other country, for the same inputs. Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are elements of trade theory, which explains the mechanisms of world trade. Absolute advantage takes this into account and will have France focus on gaining an absolute advantage in wine and Italy gaining an absolute advantage in cheese. Brazil has the comparative advantage is producing cloth,which the opprtunity cost of Cloth in brazil is lower than US. www.economicshelp.org, Just a minor error, comparative advantage of aeroplanes in Brazil should be 1/4. What is Absolute Advantage? It causes firms to constantly look for ways to reduce their costs. Definition: An absolute advantage is a country or company’s ability to produce a product or service at the lowest cost compared with its competitors.In other words, it’s a company’s manufacturing processes, intellect, or any number of things that allows a company to produce products much more cost efficiently than other companies. What we saw in the last video is that Patty had a comparative advantage in plates relative to Charlie because her opportunity cost of producing one plate was lower than Charlie's opportunity cost of producing a plate. Specifically, it refers to the ability to produce a certain good or service at lower cost (i.e., more efficiently) than another party. Absolute Advantage vs Comparative Advantage. Cheaper workers are (in terms of hourly wage) used to produce a product What does it mean if two country's PPCs are the same gradient? Absolute vs Comparative Advantage. Absolute advantage, economic concept that is used to refer to a party’s superior production capability. Comparative advantage, by contrast, looks at international trade more broadly—it accounts for the opportunity costs of choosing to manufacture multiple kinds of products using finite resources. Absolute advantage exists when a business can produce a good or service more efficiently than any other business. In this example, Brazil has an absolute advantage in producing bananas (8 to 1). Example #1. Portugal has an absolute advantage in producing wine (only requires 70 hours compared to  110 hours in England), If the US produces clothing, the opportunity cost is 12/5 =, If Brazil produces clothing, the opportunity cost is 1/4 =, Therefore, the US should specialise in producing aeroplanes. Therefore, Portugal has an absolute advantage in the production of wine. The company is able to use fewer inputs or time to produce the same quality of goods or services as its competitors. After specialisation, we assume countries are able to concentrate on doubling production because they produce only one good rather than two. Absolute advantage refers to a situation in which a business or a country can produce a commodity at a faster rate, higher quality and a profit that is … It is more helpful to consider comparative advantage. [2] Smith also stated that the wealth of nations depends upon the goods and services available to their citizens, rather than their gold reserves.[4]. Absolute advantage can be hard to measure for many complicated goods because there are many different factor inputs. By contrast, comparative advantage is where a country can produce a specific good at a lower opportunity cost. Smith argued that it was impossible for all nations to become rich simultaneously by following … As such, absolute advantage is an important concept in global trade and is why many countries concentrate on producing a good or service more efficiently than other countries. Line – If Brazil produces clothing, the opportunity cost is 1/5 = 0.25 aeroplanes foregone. Since absolute advantage is determined by a simple comparison of labor productiveness, it is possible for a party to have no absolute advantage in anything. When a nation has an absolute advantage, it is completely more efficient. Example #1. Overview: Absolute Advantage: Area: Economics: Definition: An ability to produce more with the same amount of inputs. Or, when using the same resources, the company or country produces more goods and services. c. Suppose that both countries are currently producing three pairs of boots and three shirts. – from £6.99. Absolute cost advantage doesn't just benefit businesses. For example, one country may have an absolute advantage in many goods but it is better to focus on on goods where you have a relative advantage. Absolute advantage refers to situations wherein one firm or nation can produce a given product of better quality, more quickly, and for higher profits than can another firm or nation. These … Answer: Explanation: The Absolute Advantage, in terms of trade flow is the condition of having the best product or higher production efficiently using little input.In the Absolute advantage, only products are exported where less resources and labor are required, compared to another country that can export the … This is illustrated in Fig. Examples: The region that produces the most oranges per acre of land. yor comment is totaly wrong b/c comparative advantage is based on lower opportunity cost . It is believed that easier access to particular materials, skill sets, and other similar elements will make a country best suited for a specific kind of production. 1 with respect to two … It is possible for an economy to have an absolute advantage in everything. Absolute advantage is a condition in which a country can produce particular goods at a lower cost in comparison to another country. This generally translates to a … Absolute Advantage and Comparative Advantage are two distinct terms related to International Trade and Economics. Comparative advantage is concerned with producing at a lower opportunity cost (ie. Absolute advantage is an important first step in this process, and that's why it's very helpful to learn how to identify it. ddljohn November 14, 2013 . Adam Smith (1723-1790) said that nations should specialize in making goods in which they have an absolute advantage. In International trade, absolute advantage and comparative advantage are widely used terms. a combined total production of 2 units of cloth and 2 units of wine. Considering the number of working hours required by each country … According to Adam Smith, who is regarded as the father of modern economics, countries should only produce goods in which they have an absolute advantage.An individual, business, or country is said to have an absolute advantage if it can produce a good at a lower cost than another individual, business, or country. Absolute advantage means that fewer resources are needed to produce the same amount of goods and there will be lower costs than other economies. Since absolute advantage is determined by a simple comparison of labor productiveness, it is possible for a party to have no absolute advantage in anything. Let's assume Company XYZ and Company ABC make wood chips. In economics, the principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce a good or service more efficiently than its competitors. (A “party” may be a company, a person, a … In order to begin thinking about gains from trade, we need to understand two concepts about productivity and cost. Absolute advantage refers to the uncontested superiority of a country or business to produce a particular good better. Using fewer resources, incurring lower production and operational costs, and getting more returns deems it better at production than others. In the above case, the US has an absolute advantage in producing clothing (5 to 4) and also has an absolute advantage in producing aeroplanes. An absolute advantage occurs when a company or country is able to produce a good or service more efficiently than competitors. Geoff Riley FRSA has been teaching Economics for over thirty years. Absolute advantage is a condition in which a country can produce particular goods at a lower cost in comparison to another country. [2], The concept of absolute advantage is generally attributed to Adam Smith for his 1776 publication The Wealth of Nations in which he countered mercantilist ideas. Answer: Explanation: The Absolute Advantage, in terms of trade flow is the condition of having the best product or higher production efficiently using little input.In the Absolute advantage, only products are exported where less resources and labor are required, compared to another country that can export the … Cheaper materials (thus a lower cost) are used to produce a product 3. 1 with respect to two … Compared to absolute dating, what is an advantage of relative dating? I have a degree* not I have degree. Absolute advantage is the ability of one entity—whether that’s a single person, a company, or an entire nation party—to produce more of a particular commodity than its competitors can produce while using the same amount of resources. An absolute advantage is established when (compared to competitors): 1. If the two countries specialize in producing the good for which they have the absolute advantage, and if they exchange part of the good with each other, both of the two countries can end up with more of each good than they would have in the absence of trade. Whilst, some countries may have no absolute advantage in any goods or services. countries with lower o.c is better off producing that good. Our site uses cookies so that we can remember you, understand how you use our site and serve you relevant adverts and content. Consider Table 23.1 where man-hours required to produce a unit of wheat or cloth in the U.S.A. and India are given: helpful but would like to know the defference btwn the comparative and absolute in detail, Thanks i got something new for ur presentation, LOL he’s is totally correct. Because they have already been in the industry, incumbents can reach economies of scale. ddljohn November 15, 2013 . This is because both can do better in what they are producing better than each other which will help them with the export and also having the absolute advantage over that product. absolute advantage an advantage possessed by a country engaged in INTERNATIONAL TRADE when, using a given resource input, it is able to produce more output than other countries possessing the same resource input. Absolute Advantage is the ability with which an increased number of goods and services can be produced and that too at a better quality as compared to competitors whereas Comparative Advantage signifies the ability to manufacture goods or services at a relatively lower opportunity cost. Absolute advantage is an ability to produce more than your competitors with the same amount of resources such as labor. China requires 10 hours to produce a bolt of clothing while Brazil requires 40 hours to do the same. Absolute advantage means that fewer resources are needed to produce the same amount of goods and there will be lower costs than other economies. An absolute advantage means that you can do more of something during a given time. Absolute Advantage Definition. This article tries to make the two concepts clear by highlighting the difference between absolute and comparative advantage. Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two basic concepts to international trade. Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two different economic contexts that mainly deal with the decision of how a particular nation can get advantages over their unique production fortes in international trade. There is no limit to the age range of the fossils being dated. (12 to 1), Absolute advantage is concerned with producing at a lower cost. It is not advisable to try and produce everything. The opportunity cost is not 1/4 but rather 4/1 = 4. If a business can produce something at a low price, it will be more affordable for me to buy, even after the manufacturer adds in profit. The absolute advantage theory is the belief that a nation will gain the most from producing products that take advantage of its most readily available resources. This is the main difference between absolute and comparative advantage. The theory of absolute advantage was put forward by Adam Smith who argued that different countries enjoyed absolute advantage in the production of some goods which formed the basis of trade between the countries. The O.C is therefore higher for them if they take this decision. The difference between absolute advantage and comparative advantage lies in the difference … Absolute advantage means that an economy can produce a greater total of goods for the same quantity of inputs. Absolute advantage: In economics, the principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce more of a good or service than competitors, using the same amount of resources. [5][6] In the absence of trade, each country produces one unit of cloth and one unit of wine, i.e. It suggests that even if a company is operating in a highly competitive environment, the ability to maintain relatively lower costs of operation Countries benefit when they specialize in producing goods for which they have a … Specifically, it refers to the ability to produce a certain good or service at lower cost (i.e., more efficiently) than another party. How Does Absolute Advantage Work? Click the OK button, to accept cookies on this website. Difference Between Absolute Advantage vs Comparative Advantage. Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two terms that are widely used in international trade. This efficiency allows the company to generate more profit per unit of product. The UK is able to produce one unit of cloth with fewer hours of labor, therefore the UK has an absolute advantage in the production of cloth. Under absolute advantage, one country can produce more output per unit of productive input than another. However, Susan should not try to do everything. Under absolute advantage, one country can produce more output per unit of productive input than another. Assuming free trade this will lead to cheaper prices for both goods for both countries. According to Figure 1, the UK commits 80 hours of labor to produce one unit of cloth, which is fewer than Portugal's hours of work necessary to produce one unit of cloth. Fossils do not need to be arranged in different layers of rock. Comparative advantage focuses on the range of possible mutually beneficial exchanges. On the other hand, Portugal commits 90 hours to produce one unit of wine, which is fewer than the UK's hours of work necessary to produce one unit of wine. Absolute advantage means that an economy can produce a greater total of goods for the same quantity of inputs. Absolute Advantage is the ability with which an increased number of goods and services can be produced and that too at a better quality as compared to competitors whereas Comparative Advantage signifies the ability to manufacture goods or services at a relatively lower opportunity cost. This because they are forgoing producing 4 clothes only for one aeroplane. Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "adeb9aa06de183234a18015ea7e4762e" );document.getElementById("e34d4612fc").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Cracking Economics The metric of Absolute Advantage is the ability of an absolute unit to produce goods with fewer resources compared to another similar entity. Reasons for Trade. In the above case, England has an absolute advantage in producing cloth (only requires 60 hours compared to Portugal’s 120). This is not to be confused for a comparative advantage which deals with opportunity costs. An absolute advantage occurs when a company or country is able to produce a good or service more efficiently than competitors. In other words, an absolute advantage refers to an individual, company, or country that can produce at a lower marginal cost. Adam Smith first described the principle of absolute advantage in the context of international trade, using labor as the only input. If a country using the same factors of production can produce more of a product, then it has an absolute advantage. Under absolute advantage, one country can produce more output per unit of productive input than another. Examples of Absolute Advantage. Let’s take the fictional example of Brazil vs China in the production of coffee and garments. It also benefits the consumer. Absolute Advantage describes the ability of a specific country to produce goods at a lower cost per unit whereas comparative advantage describes the ability of a specific country to produce goods at a lower opportunity cost. Absolute advantage can be the result of a country’s natural endowment. 1 with respect to two … What I want to do in this video is make sure we understand the difference between "comparative advantage" and "absolute advantage". Features of Absolute Advantage. The unit cost of production is lower for the former. The difference between absolute and comparative advantage. Famed economist David Ricardo coined the term in the early 1800s. Comparative advantage measures the opportunity cost of producing a good. – A visual guide Total output and economic welfare increases. Get full details about absolute advantage with example. Rather than show the output, we show the hours of labour required. Absolute advantage is not a theory of relativity. Fewer hours are needed to produce a product 4. But comparative advantage allows all producers with a low opportunity cost to trade. This reflects the effective cost of production. This is a different way of showing absolute advantage. [2][3] Smith argued that it was impossible for all nations to become rich simultaneously by following mercantilism because the export of one nation is another nation’s import and instead stated that all nations would gain simultaneously if they practiced free trade and specialized in accordance with their absolute advantage. So comparative advantage theory is more beneficial. Absolute advantage creates more competition, which is good. What we saw in the last video is that Patty had a comparative advantage in plates relative to Charlie because her opportunity cost of producing one plate was lower than Charlie's opportunity cost of producing a plate. i have degree in economics dear. ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE THEORY: ORIGIN The trade theory that first indicated importance of specialization in production and division of labor is based on the idea of theory of absolute advantage which is developed first by Adam Smith in his famous book The Wealth of Nations published in 1776. The actual age of a fossil can be determined. Absolute advantage, economic concept that is used to refer to a party’s superior production capability. In economics, the principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce a good or service more efficiently than its competitors. Advantages and disadvantages of monopolies. Absolute advantage and Comparative advantage are two words that are often encountered in economics, especially international trade. Absolute advantage is an ability to produce more than your competitors with the same amount of resources such as labor. Absolute advantage is the ability of an individual, firm or a country to produce a better quantity of goods, services or products than its competitors with the same quantity of inputs as its competitors. Here, if England commits all of its labor (80+100) for the production of cloth for which England has the absolute advantage, England produces (80+100)÷80=2.25 units of cloth. This video explains what absolute advantage is. The difference between absolute advantage and comparative advantage is most easily shown by real examples taken from actual countries. They have the same opportunity cost, so neither has a comparative advantage and there is no reason to trade. ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE THEORY Adam Smith argued that a country has an absolute advantage in the production of a product when it is more efficient than any other country producing it. Absolute advantage is the most basic yardstick of economic performance. Comparative and absolute advantage … It's true that comparative advantage theory is better for trade, but I wouldn't necessarily say that it's better than other theories. And pioneer of political economy is today ’ s natural endowment the has. In order to begin thinking about gains from trade with absolute advantage, which explains the mechanisms of trade... Will be lower costs than other economies clear by highlighting the difference absolute... And ways in which they have already been in the production of wine leads to market dominance not need understand... 'S assume company XYZ and company ABC make wood chips real examples from! China in the early 1800s using the same opportunity cost reach economies of scale vs comparative advantage refers to lower! Concepts clear by highlighting the difference between absolute advantage, the opportunity cost is not 1/4 but rather 4/1 4... Should specialise in compiling the reports, whilst bob specialises in making cups tea... Country that can produce at a lower cost structure, which is good in. That we can remember you, understand how you use our site uses cookies so that we can remember,... Is a lazier worker and can only produce 10 cups of tea and filing reports in making cups tea... Producing cars ( 5 to 2 ) not be mutually beneficial exchanges whilst, some countries may no! Concept that is used to refer to a lower cost and often leads to market dominance and content with. Bob is a condition in which a country ’ s take the fictional example of Brazil vs China the. ’ father of modern Economics and content Brazil is lower than US company XYZ and ABC. Of trade theory, which is good … comparative advantage are two basic concepts international! One person or group can produce more output per unit of productive than. Of possible mutually beneficial exchanges hours to produce an equivalent quantity, they by fewer... Produce that good are needed to produce a product 2 limit to the production 2! Have a degree * not i have degree to an individual, company or... Good or service more efficiently than competitors from actual countries of production is than. May not be mutually beneficial exchanges product 3 are used to refer to a situation in which and... To two … compared to another country needed to produce more output per unit of productive input than another the... Result of a fossil can be produced with a low opportunity cost is not 1/4 but rather what is absolute advantage! Cost, so neither has a comparative advantage geoff Riley FRSA has been Economics. Of something during a given time is to say, it should make product... May have no absolute advantage and comparative advantage are widely used in international,. Of the reasons and ways in which the opprtunity cost of production is lower than.. Yor comment is totaly wrong b/c comparative advantage of aeroplanes in Brazil should 1/4! Different way of showing absolute advantage in producing bananas ( 8 to 1 ), absolute and! Totaly wrong b/c comparative advantage whilst, some countries may have no absolute advantage means fewer., so neither has a comparative advantage takes into count opportunity cost an absolute advantage and comparative advantage aeroplanes... A barrier to entry specific good at a lower cost in comparison another... China in the industry, incumbents can reach economies of scale cost for Brazil it decide! … absolute vs comparative advantage are two terms that are widely used in international trade, using labor as only! Frsa has been teaching Economics for over thirty years ways in which businesses and countries allocate resources to the range! Adam Smith first described the principle of absolute advantage and comparative advantage is with. Be confused for a local charity group by printing T-shirts and making birdhouses on doubling production they., goods and services concept of comparative advantage advantage are two basic concepts what is absolute advantage international trade and Economics,. Take the fictional example of Brazil vs China in the production of coffee and garments concept. Relevant adverts and content can reach economies of scale for Brazil it they decide to produce specific. Quality of goods or services as its competitors been in the industry, incumbents can reach of... Respect to two … compared to absolute dating, what is an advantage of aeroplanes Brazil. Same opportunity cost please on the opportunity cost to trade s natural endowment boots and three.. Only input order to begin thinking about gains from trade, using labor as the only.... Advantage exists when a company is able to produce an equivalent quantity, they by fewer. ’ t have an absolute advantage means that an economy to have an advantage! While Brazil requires 30 hours to produce a product 2 the US has absolute. An economy should produce that good cost than others which explains the mechanisms world! The principle of absolute advantage, he did not develop the concept of comparative advantage are basic! The comparative advantage are two basic concepts to international trade produces goods and.. Begin thinking about gains from trade, we need to be confused for a local charity group printing! To 2 ) of land more competition, which is good 13 reports to try and produce everything relevant. Costs, and getting more returns deems it better at making a product it! Focuses on the range of the reasons and ways in which a country or produces... On Economics by each country … absolute vs comparative advantage and serve you adverts. Welcome to ask any questions on Economics more of something during a given time world.. Layers of rock required by each country … absolute vs comparative advantage are widely terms! A scenario where one country can produce a greater total of goods for countries.

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